الجمعة , مارس 1 2024

إشكالية التفسير بغير علم  دراسة تحليلية لمدارس تفسير القران الكريم The problem of interpretation without knowledge: An analytical study of the schools of interpretation of the Holy Qur’an

الملخص:

تسعى هذه الدراسة الى بيان تفسير القران وأهميته ومشروعه، والكشف عن آلية انتقال البيان النبوي للقران الكريم واستمراريته الى يوم القيامة، وقد وقد تحدث العلماء في اصول التفسير، من أهمها تفسير القران بالقران، فالقرآن هو الذي يفسر نفسه، هو الذي يقدم نفسه، هو الذي يفتح أبواب علومه ..  وسؤولية النبي محمد صلى الله عليه واله وسلم بيان القران الكريم والله تعالى يقول: {وَأَنْزَلْنَا إلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ}([1]) وألزم الله تعالى بقوله: {وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ …} ([2])، وقوله: {أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ}([3])، وقوله: {مَنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ}([4]) ولا يوجد في الحقيقة خلاف في هذا، ولكن الخلاف فيما يُنسب إليه صلى الله عليه واله وسلم، وبيان الرسول (صَلَّى الله عَلَيْه وَآله وسَلَّم): يُعرف من خلال فهم حركته، وفهم أساليبه، وإدراك مستوى العظمة في شخصيته، وأما الآلية التي انتقل بها البيان النبوي للناس، أشار سبحانه وتعالى إلى ذلك بقوله: (ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا الْكِتَابَ الَّذِينَ اصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا) ([5]) ووراثة الكتاب هي وراثة بيانه وعلمه، وأما اللغة العربية فهي مصدر أساسي في تفسير كتاب الله تعالى: (إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ) ([6])، والمقصود هو معرفة أساليب اللغة، نَفَس اللغة، طرق العرب في التخاطب فيما بينهم، أما التفسير بالرأي فقد اختلف فيه وهو: التوصل الى معنى الآيات بالاعتماد على قواعد العلم واللغة العربية، والنظر في الآيات والتدبر والتأمل لما فيه خفاء وغموض للتوصل الى معانيها.


([1]) سورة النحل الآية:{44}.

([2]) سورة الحشر من الآية: {7}.

([3]) سورة النساء من الآية:{59}.

([4]) سورة النساء من الآية:{80}.

([5]) سورة فاطر من الآية:{32}.

([6]) سورة  يوسف من الآية:{2}.

Summary:

 This study seeks to clarify the interpretation of the Qur’an, its importance, its purpose, and to reveal the mechanism of transferring the prophetic clarification of the Holy Qur’an and its continuity until the day of resurrection. Scholars have spoken about the principles of interpretation, of which the most important is the interpretation of the Qur’an by the Qur’an itself. The Qur’an explains itself, introduces itself, and opens the doors of its sciences, whereas the responsibility of explaining the Holy Qur’an falls upon the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family. Allah Almighty says: {And We have sent down to you the Remembrance to make clarify to the people what has been revealed to you, so that they may reflect} and Allah Almighty Obligated His servants by saying: {And what the Messenger has given you, take it …}, his saying : {Obey Allah and obey the Messenger}, and His saying: {Whoever obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah} There is, in fact, no disagreement regarding this, but the disagreement stems from what is attributed to him, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family. The Messenger’s clarification, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, is known through understanding his movement, understanding his methods, and realizing the level of greatness in his personality. As for the mechanism by which the prophetic clarification was transferred to people, Allah Almighty referred to by saying: {Then We gave as inheritance to the Book those whom We had chosen from among Our servants}. Inheriting the Book means inheriting its clarification and knowledge. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, conveyed and clarified the duality of the Book and the models that carry out the explanation of this Book. Based on the overall movement of the Prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, emerged models that carry out Quranic awareness and understanding, and the ability to interact with the Quranic text, and how to deduce from it. Similarly, these models appeared in his family, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. The prophet, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family, would send some of his family members to countries and regions to deliver his message. As for the Arabic language, it is an essential source in interpreting the Book of Allah Almighty: {Indeed, We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an so that you may understand}, meaning knowing the style of the language, the essence of the language, the ways of the Arabs in communicating with each other. As for the interpretation based on opinion, there is disagreement over it as it means arriving at the meaning of the verses by relying on the rules of science and the Arabic language, scrutinizing the verses, contemplating and pondering upon what is hidden and ambiguous in order to understand their meanings.

اعداد :

أ. احمد يحيى احمد اللاحجي

Ahmed Yahya Ahmed Al-Laheji

جامعة صنعاء/ كلية الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية

Sana’a University, College of Arts and Human Sciences

تقييم المستخدمون: كن أول المصوتون !

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